Particulate Matter - Funding Mechanisms
Federal Funding - CMAQ
Every state receives federal funding authorized under the Transportation Equity Act for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) programs. These funds are then prioritized by the State for communities and areas out of attainment for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. CMAQ funds can only go to transportation related projects and programs that will contribute to attainment of air quality standards.
Alaska 's CMAQ funds primarily go to programs that reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in Fairbanks and Anchorage. Fairbanks and Anchorage historically violated CO standards and were designated as "nonattainment areas." The designation allowed use of CMAQ funds that continues to this day. These areas are now considered "maintenance" areas and are still eligible for CMAQ funds. Examples of Alaskan projects funded by CMAQ monies included free wintertime bus service and electrical hookups in Fairbanks, and an engine block heater program in Anchorage.
If ADEC recommends designating areas as nonattainment, and if EPA accepts that designation, then some portion of the CMAQ funds coming to Alaska will be directed to PM control projects in the rural areas. CMAQ funds will also continue going to Fairbanks to deal with their likely designation as nonattainment for PM2.5. How these funds will be spent will involve meetings between state and local governments. The Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOTPF) is the state agency that receives and distributes CMAQ funds.
Currently, it is too early to determine what control mechanisms will be funded by CMAQ funds. Control proposals will be reviewed by state and local personnel to make sure it is effective and feasible for the community. Controls may include burn bans, diesel engine retrofits, speed limits, dust palliatives, road watering and more.
Other funding options:
- U.S. EPA - grants
- U.S. DOE
- Denali Commission
- Current state funds for road improvement