References and Standards for Storage Tanks
Industry has developed and published many standards that deal with storage tanks and facilities. Standards are developed by the below organizations consisting of people who work and are familiar with various aspects of industry. Through research, experience and general knowledge standards are written. Their purpose is to provide guidelines for designing, operating and maintaining facilities in a safe, organized and functional manner.
Addresses for Industry Standards
If you want to order copies of standards, you can call or write the appropriate organization and order them. Prices of these documents vary.
|American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 11 West 42nd Street New York, New York 10036 Phone: (212) 642-4900||American Petroleum Institute (API) 1220 L St. NW Washington, D.C. 20005 Phone: (202) 682-8000 or publications (202) 682-8375|
|American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 22 Law Drive, Box 2300 Fairfield, New Jersey 07007-2300 Phone: (800) 843-2763 or (800) 321-2633 FAX: (201) 882-1717||International Fire Code Institute (IFCI) 9300 Jollyville Road, Suite 105 Austin, Texas 78759-7455 Phone: (512) 345-2633|
|National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) P.O. Box 218340 Houston, Texas 77218-8340 Phone: (713) 492-0535 FAX: (713) 579-6694||National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1 Batterymarch Park P.O. Box 9101 Quincy, Massachusetts 02269-9101 Phone: (617) 770-3000|
|Petroleum Equipment Institute (PEI) P.O. Box 2380 Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101-2380 Phone: (918) 494-9696 FAX: (918) 491-9895||Steel Tank Institute (STI) 570 Oakwood Road Lake Zurich, Ill. 60047 Phone: (847) 438-0989 Fax: (847) 438-4509|
|Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook, Ill. 6662 Phone: (847) 272-8800 FAX: (847) 509-6247||Uniform Fire Code (UFC) 5360 South Workman Mill Road Whittier, California 90601|
Underground Storage Tanks
1. Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Recommended Practices for Monitoring Well Design, Installation, and Decommissioning, April 1992.
2. Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Underground Tank Statutes AS 46.03.320 - 46.03.450
3. Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Underground Storage Tank Procedures Manual (UST Procedures Manual), dated September 22, 1995.
4. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1604, Removal and Disposal of Used Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks, 1987, including Supplement, November 28, 1990.
5. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1615, Installation of Underground Petroleum Storage Systems, Fourth Edition, November, 1987.
6. American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, Recommended Practice for Bulk Liquid Stock Control at Retail Outlets, and National Fire Protection Association Standard 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
7. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1626, Storing and Handling Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends at Distribution Terminals and Service Stations, April 1985.
8. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1627, Storage and Handling of Gasoline-Methanol/Cosolvent Blends at Distribution Terminals and Service Stations, August 1986.
9. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1631, Interior Lining of Underground Storage Tanks, Third Edition, April 1992.
10. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1632, Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems, Second Edition, 1987.
11. American Petroleum Institute Standard 2015, Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks, Planning and Managing Tank Entry from Decommissioning Through Recommissioning, Fifth Edition, 1994.
12. American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 2200, Repairing Crude Oil, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and Product Pipelines, Third Edition, May 1994.
13. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 471-95, Standard Test for Rubber Property - Effect of Liquids, 1995.
14. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 751-95, Standard Test for Coated Fabrics, 1995.
15. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 882-91, Standard Test for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting, 1991.
16. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 1603-94, Standard Test Method for Carbon Black in Olefin Plastics, 1994.
17. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 2136-94, Standard Test for Coated Fabrics - Low Temperature Bend Test, 1994.
18. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 3015-72 (Reapproved 1990), Standard Practice for Microscopical Examination of Pigment Suspension in Plastic Compounds, 1990.
19. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D 4021-92, Standard Specification for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks, 1992
20.* American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code for Pressure Piping, B31, an American National Standard, B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping, 1993, and B31.3b - 1994, Addenda thereto.
- and -
American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code for Pressure Piping, B31, an American National Standard, B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols, 1992.
21. International Fire Code Institute, Uniform Fire Code, Article 79, Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1991.
22. International Fire Code Institute, Uniform Fire Code, Article 80, Section 301, Hazardous Materials, 1991;
23. National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard RP0169-92, Standard Recommended Practice-Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems, Revised, April, 1992.
24. National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard RP0190-95, Standard Recommended Practice - External Protective Coatings for Joints, Fittings, and Valves on Metallic Underground or Submerged Pipelines and Piping Systems, 1990, Reaffirmed 1995.
25. National Association of Corrosion Engineers Recommended Practice RP0193-93, Standard Recommended Practice - External Cathodic Protection of On-Grade Metallic Storage Tank Bottoms, 1993.
26. National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard RP0285-95, Standard Recommended Practice - Corrosion Control of Underground Storage Tank Systems by Cathodic Protection 1995.
27. National Fire Protection Association Standard 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 1993 Edition.
28. National Fire Protection Association Standard 30A, Automobile and Marine Service Station Code, 1993 Edition.
29. National Fire Protection Association Standard 385, Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1990 Edition.
30. National Leak Prevention Association Standard 631, Entry, Cleaning, Interior Inspection, Repair and Lining of Underground Storage Tanks, 1991.
31. New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, Tank Closure Without Tears: An Inspector's Safety Guide, Third Edition, 1988. (Eff. 3/25/91, Register 118; am 11/3/95, Register 136).
32. Petroleum Equipment Institute Recommended Practice RP100-94, Recommended Practices for Installation of Underground Liquid Storage Systems, 1994.
33. Steel Tank Institute's Standard for Dual Wall Underground Steel Storage Tanks, F841-91, Revised February 15, 1991.
34. Steel Tank Institute Specification, STI-P3-Specification and Manual for External Corrosion Protection of Underground Steel Storage Tanks, 1995.
35. Steel Tank Institute Specification F894, ACT-100-Specification for External Corrosion Protection of FRP Composite Steel Underground Storage Tanks, 1995.
36. Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Document ULC/ORD-C107.7-1993, Glass-Fibre Reinforced Plastic Pipe and Fittings for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1993.
37. Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Standard CAN/ULC-S603-92, Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Second Edition, Amended May, 1994.
38. Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Standard CAN/ULC-S603.1-92, Standard for Galvanic Corrosion Protection Systems for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Second Edition, 1992.
39. Underwriter's Laboratories of Canada Standard CAN4-S615-M83, Standard for Reinforced Plastic Underground Tanks for Petroleum Products, 1983.
40. Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Standard CAN4-S631-M84, Standard for Isolating Bushings for Steel Underground Tanks Protected with Coatings and Galvanic Systems, 1984.
41. Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Standard, CAN/ULC-S633-M90, Standard for Flexible Underground Hose Connectors for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Second Edition, 1990.
42. Underwriters Laboratories Standard 58, Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Eighth Edition, 1986.
43. Underwriters Laboratories Standard 567, Pipe Connectors for Flammable and Combustible Liquids and LP-Gas, Second Edition, 1992.
44. Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1316, Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Underground Storage Tanks for Petroleum Products, Alcohols, and Alcohol-Gasoline Mixtures, Second Edition, 1994.
45. Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1746, External Corrosion Protection Systems for Steel Underground Storage Tanks, Second Edition, 1993.
46. United States Environmental Protection Agency's document Detecting Leaks, Successful Methods Step-by-Step, Chapter 4, November 1989 (EPA/530/UST-89/012).
47. United States Environmental Protection Agency's document Guidance on Preparation of Laboratory Quality Assurance Plans, Revision No. 1, dated October 9, 1992, (EPA 910/9- 92-032).
48. United States Environmental Protection Agency's document Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund - Vol. I, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A), Interim Final (No. EPA/540/1- 89/002)
49. United States Environmental Protection Agency's document Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund-Vol.II, Environmental Evaluation Manual, Interim Final (No. EPA/540/1-89/001).
50. United States Environmental Protection Agency's manual Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Leak Detection Methods: Volumetric Tank Tightness Testing Methods, March 1990 (EPA/530/UST-90/004)
51. United States Environmental Protection Agency's manual Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Leak Detection Methods: Nonvolumetric Tank Tightness Testing Methods, March 1990 (EPA/530/UST-90/005).
52. United States Environmental Protection Agency's Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water & Wastes, EPA 600/4-79-020, revised March, 1983 or its Test Method for the Evaluation of Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods, SW-846, (PB84128677), 1986, revised November 1992.
Aboveground Storage Tanks
|Facility Piping||Tank Design and Construction|
|AST Maintenance||Tank Operation|
|Fire Protection||AST Related Industry Standards|
ANSI B31.3: Chemical Plant and Petroleum Piping describes use, design, fabrication, examination and testing of piping systems.
ANSI B31.4: Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols includes information on for design and construction, material specifications, assembling and testing piping, maintenance procedures and corrosion protection.
API 570: Piping Inspection Code, Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and rerating of In-Service Piping Systems provides guidelines for maintaining the safety and integrity of piping systems.
STI R892: Recommended Practice for Corrosion Protection of Underground Piping Networks Associated with Liquid Storage and Dispensing Systems outlines the steps designing, installing and monitoring of corrosion control systems for underground metallic piping.
Tank Design and Construction
API Spec 12B: Specification for Bolted Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids covers material, design and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, bolted steel tanks with capacities of 4,200 to 420,000 gallons.
API Spec 12D: Specification for Field Welded Tanks for Storage Production Liquids covers material, design, fabrication and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, welded steel tanks with capacities of 21,000 to 420,000 gallons.
API Spec 12E: Specification for Shop Welded Tanks for Storage Production Liquids covers material, design, and construction requirements for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, shop-welded steel tanks with capacities of 3,780 to 21,000 gallons.
API RP 12R1: Recommended Practice for Setting, Maintenance, Inspection, Operation and Repair of Tanks in Production Service contains guidelines for new tank battery installations and for revamping existing batteries.
API Std 620: Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks covers design and construction of large, welded, low-pressure carbon steel aboveground storage tanks.
API Std 650: Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage covers material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical aboveground welded steel storage tanks in various sizes and capacities.
API Std 2610: Terminal & Tank Facility Management covers the design, construction, operation, inspection, and maintenance of petroleum terminal and tank facilities and is designed as a pointer document that will direct the user to other appropriate industry standards
ASME B96.1: Welded Aluminum Alloy Storage Tanks covers the design and fabrication of welded aluminum alloy storage tanks.
NACE STD RP0193-93: External Cathodic Protection of On-Grande Metallic Storage Tank Bottoms provides guidelines for the design, installation and maintenance of cathodic protection systems for the exterior bottoms of on-grade metallic storage tanks.
PEI-RP200: Recommended Practices for Installation of Aboveground Storage Systems for Motor Vehicle Fueling provides a reference to preferred practices and procedures for installing aboveground storage systems at service stations, marinas and other fueling sites.
STI R893: Recommended Practice for External Corrosion Protection of Shop /Fabricated Aboveground Storage Tank Floors details design and manufacture procedures for an external corrosion control for ASTs that are shop fabricated to UL-142 within a steel secondary containment dike system.
STI F911: Standard for Diked Aboveground Steel Tanks includesfabrication specifications for construction of steel diked secondary containment of products stored in ASTs, and the manufacture, inspection and testing of open top diked secondary containment tanks.
STI R912: Installation Instructions for Factory Fabricated Aboveground Storage Tanks covers foundation preparation, air testing, handling, labeling and secondary containment installation requirements for primary storage tanks built to UL 142.
STI F921: Standard for Aboveground Tanks with Integral Secondary Containment addresses manufacturing, inspecting and testing secondary containment tanks.
STI R931: Double Wall Aboveground Storage Tank Installation & Testing Instructions detail handling and testing procedures for double walled ASTs upon arrival at the site.
UL 142: Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids covers design and construction specifications for producing UL listed steel ASTs for flammable and combustible liquids.
Ul 2085: Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids covers insulated aboveground, atmospheric tanks intended for storage of noncorrosive, stable, flammable or combustible liquids.
API Chapter 3.1A: Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products describes the procedure for manual gauging of petroleum products in fixed or floating roof tanks and marine vessels.
API Chapter 3.1B: Standard Practice for Level Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Stationary Tanks by Automatic Tank Gauging discusses automatic tank gauging in genera and gauge calibration.
API Chapter 16.2: Mass Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Vertical, Cylindrical Storage Tanks by Hydrostatic Tank Gauging provides guidance on the installation, commissioning, maintenance, validation and calibration of hydrostatic tank gauging systems for the direct measurement of static mass of liquid hydrocarbons in storage tanks.
API Publi 306: An Engineering Assessment of Volumetric Methods of Leak Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks provides the results of a leak detection project in aboveground storage tanks which utilize volumetric methods to detect leaks.
API Publi 307: An Engineering Assessment of Acoustic Methods of Leak Detection in Aboveground Storage Tanks provides the results of a leak detection project in aboveground storage tanks which utilize acoustic methods to detect leaks.
API RP 651: Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks describes the corrosion problems characteristic in aboveground steel storage tanks and associated piping systems and provides a general description of the two methods currently used to provide cathodic protection against corrosion.
API RP 652: Lining of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tank Bottoms describes the procedures and practices for achieving corrosion control in aboveground storage tanks by application of tank bottom linings in both existing and new storage tanks.
API RP 1626: Storage and Handling Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends at Distribution Terminals and Service Stations provides recommended practices for the storage, handling and fire protection for both ethanol and gasoline-ethanol blends.
API RP 1627: Storage and Handling Gasoline-Methanol/Cosolvent Blends at Distribution Terminals and Service-Stations describes recommended practices for the storage, handling and fire protection of gasoline-methanol/cosolvent blends.
API STD 2000: Venting Atmospheric and Low -Pressure Storage Tanks (Nonrefridgerated and Refrigerated) covers the normal and emergency venting requirements for aboveground liquid petroleum or petroleum products storage tanks and aboveground and underground refrigerated tanks.
API 653: Tank Inspection, Repair, Alternation and Reconstruction provides guidance in the inspection, repair, alteration and reconstruction of steel storage tanks used in the petroleum and chemical industries.
API Publ 2015: Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks describes precautions and procedures to clean non-portable, nonrefrigerated atmospheric and pressurized petroleum storage tanks.
API Publ 2217A: Guidelines for Work in Inert Confined Spaces in the Petroleum Industry provides guidelines fro personnel to safely enter and work in or near confined spaces that have been intentionally purged with an inert gas until the vapor space and any emissions are below flammable or reactive levels.
API Publ 2207: Preparing Tank Bottoms for Hot Work outlines safety precautions for preventing accidental fires and explosions when hot work is performed on tank bottoms.
API Publ 2021: Guide for Fighting Fires In and Around Petroleum Storage Tanks is designed as a guide to train employees to successfully attack and extinguish various types of petroleum storage tank fires.
API Publ 2027: Ignition Hazards Involved in Abrasive Blasting of Atmospheric Storage Tanks in Hydrocarbon Service identifies the ignition hazard involved in abrasive blasting of the exteriors of hydrocarbon storage tanks containing a mixture that is flammable or that can become flammable when air is added.
NFPA 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code provides safe storage and handling requirements for flammable and combustible liquids.
NFPA 30A: Automotive and Marine Services Station Code supplies general provisions for piping, fuel dispensing systems, stations inside buildings and operations.
NFPA 31: Installation of Oil Burning Equipment provides requirements for stationary nd portable oil burning equipment, tanks, piping and accessories
Uniform Fire Code gives supplemental provisions to laws relating to fire safety and includes specific information on aboveground storage tanks.
AST Related Industry Standards
API Publ 328: Laboratory Evaluation of Candidate Liners for Secondary Containment of Petroleum Products provides comparative data on the physical properties of liner materials as a function of their controlled exposure to fuels and /or additives.
API Publ 422: Groundwater Protection Programs for Petroleum Refining and Storage Facilities: A Guidance Document provides guidance to help petroleum facilities identify the types of issues that may need to be addressed in a groundwater protection plan.
API Publ 1638: Waste Management Practices for Petroleum Marketing Facilities provides specific guidance for managing typical waste streams at petroleum marketing facilities.
API Publ 2202: Dismantling and Disposing of Steel from Aboveground Leaded Gasoline Storage Tanks outlines precautions to prevent hazardous exposure of personnel to lead antiknock compounds when dismantling tanks that have contained leaded gasoline and when disposing of the steel.