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Impaired Waterbody Categories:

  • Category 4a - Impaired water with a final/approved TMDL
  • Category 4b - Impaired water but not needing a TMDL; expected to meet standards in a reasonable time period
  • Category 5 - Impaired water, CWA Section 303(d) list, requires TMDL

What is a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)?
A TMDL is a process through which pollution sources are identified. The study analyzes pollution sources of a waterbody and calculates the amount or 'load' of that specific pollutant that the water can receive and still maintain Water Quality Standards. TMDLs are a necessary first step toward waterbody recovery and are required for a waterbody to be 'de-listed' from the Alaska 303(d) Category 5 Impaired Waters List. A waterbody can also be taken off the list if other controls are in place to assure the recovery of the waterbody.

GIS map of Impaired Waters

Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Reports Webpage

Within the tables waters are listed by region - Interior (IN), Southcentral (SC), Southeast (SE) - and alphabetically.

Impaired Waterbody Listing

Select "Expand All" to show collapsed columns (Alaska ID, Location, Area of Concern, TMDL, Comments)

Most Recently EPA Approved List of Impaired Waters (as of 2016)
Category 4a, 4b, and 5 Waterbody Listing
Region Category Alaska ID Waterbody Location Area of Concern Water Quality Standard Pollutant Parameters Pollutant Sources TMDL Comment
Region Category Alaska ID Waterbody Location Area of Concern Water Quality Standard Pollutant Parameters Pollutant Sources TMDL Comment
IN 4a 40402-001 Birch Creek Drainage: - Upper Birch Creek; Eagle Creek; Golddust Creek North of Fairbanks 10.6 miles total Turbidity Turbidity Placer Mining Upper Birch Creek - Turbidity TMDL, EPA, 1996 (PDF, 1.2 MB) Birch Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1992 for non-attainment of the turbidity criteria as a result of placer mining activity within the drainage. A TMDL was developed and finalized on October 10, 1996, and thus the turbidity impairment for Birch Creek was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 4a in the 1998 Integrated Report. Priority actions for this waterbody include continued APDES inspections to monitor reduction of discharges from active mine sites, particularly during storm events; continued implementation of reclamation activities in key areas to address high-priority nonpoint source problems; and monitoring at key sites in the drainage to determine the extent of the water quality improvements. The United States Bureau of Land Management (BLM) conducted water quality sampling during 2001-2005 which was published in a 2007 report. Additional data collection occurred in 2004-2005, and 2007-2012. Data are currently under review and the BLM will publish a report when final. The BLM continued data collection in collaboration with the DEC in 2014, 2015 and 2016.
IN 4a 40506-009 Garrison Slough Eielson Air Force Base 5.1 miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Polychlorinaged Biphenyls (PCBs) Military Base / Operations Garrison Slough - PCB TMDL, EPA, 1996 (PDF, 612 KB) Garrison Slough was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1996 for non-attainment of the standard for toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances, specifically the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) criteria. A TMDL was developed in 1996, moving Garrison Slough to Category 4a in 1998. Sediment and fish samples from the slough contained elevated concentrations of PCBs. The source of the PCBs was traced to a drainage ditch. Eielson Air Force Base vacuum dredged and removed most of the upper 18 to 24 inches of soil in the drainage ditch leading into Garrison Slough. Excavation in the drainage ditch extended downward until either groundwater was encountered or field screening results indicated PCB concentrations of less than 10 milligrams per kilogram. A 180-foot section of Garrison Slough was not excavated because an unexploded ordnance was discovered. PCBs at concentrations above the DEC cleanup levels set forth in 18 AAC 75 are known to remain in the slough sediments. Fish tissue sampling has been performed. A risk assessment was completed to set maximum contamination levels allowable in fish. As a temporary measure, engineering controls were initiated to prevent fish from entering the slough. An additional munitions sweep was conducted in spring 2007 and ensured no other unexploded ordnances existed. Some sediment profiling was conducted in spring 2007 and 2008. In the 5-year Record of Decision (ROD) review, completed in 2008, the DEC and the EPA recommended additional actions to address the contamination. DEC and EPA conducted site visits in 2010 and 2011 and received the draft Uniformed Federal Policy-QAPP in 2011 which included fish and sediment sampling. In 2012, the DEC granted approval for the Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Management Plan, QAPP, and Risk Assessment Work Plan. Results from the 2012 sampling showed that grayling from Garrison Slough have significantly higher PCB concentrations than fish from nearby Piledriver Slough, the Chena River, and the Chatanika River. In April 2013, the DEC reviewed and approved the After-Action Report on the Supplemental Remedial Investigation. The DEC, with assistance from the Department of Law, finalized a settlement agreement with the Air Force and the EPA establishing a plan and schedule for completing an updated RI/FS on Garrison Slough in August 2013. In 2014 the Air Force submitted the Draft Supplemental Remedial Investigation (SRI) Report. In 2015 the draft Final ROD clean-up plan was approved by DEC and EPA. Implementation of the clean-up ROD began in 2015 and continues through 2016 to reach the clean-up level.
IN 4a 40509-001 Goldstream Creek Fairbanks 35.7 miles Turbidity Turbidity Placer Mining Goldstream Creek - Turbidity TMDL, DEC, 2015 (PDF, 6 MB) Goldstream Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1992 for non-attainment of the turbidity criteria. A waterbody assessment was completed and confirmed the pollutant and the pollutant source. The assessment determined that existing controls were sufficient to address the turbidity issue and that a formal TMDL was not needed. Nevertheless, the water quality assessment was prepared for Goldstream Creek (September 30, 1994) and submitted to the EPA for technical review. The assessment contains a section on development of a management plan and a pollution control strategy. However, no further sampling was conducted to confirm that existing controls were sufficient until 2010. From 2010-2013 a water quality assessment was conducted and data showed the creek was not meeting WQS. A TMDL was developed and approved by EPA in September 2015 and the water is moved to Category 4a in the 2014-16 Integrated Report for turbidity.
IN 4a 40506-003 Noyes Slough Fairbanks 5.7 miles Residues Debris Urban Runoff Noyes Slough - Residues, TMDL, DEC 2008 (PDF, 1.4 MB) Noyes Slough was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the residues (debris), petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease and sediment criteria. A TMDL was developed and finalized for the residues impairment in May 2008. A TMDL for petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease was finalized in 2011. Additional sediment data collected in 2011 showed that Noyes Slough is also meeting the water quality criteria for sediment. The sediment impairment for Noyes Slough is proposed for removal from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placement in Category 2 in the 2014-16 Integrated Report.
IN 4a 40506-003 Noyes Slough Fairbanks 5.7 miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oil, and Grease Sheens Urban Runoff Noyes Slough - Residues, TMDL, DEC 2008 (PDF, 1.4 MB) Noyes Slough was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the residues (debris), petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease and sediment criteria. A TMDL was developed and finalized for the residues impairment in May 2008. A TMDL for petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease was finalized in 2011. Additional sediment data collected in 2011 showed that Noyes Slough is also meeting the water quality criteria for sediment. The sediment impairment for Noyes Slough is proposed for removal from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placement in Category 2 in the 2014-16 Integrated Report.
IN 4a 40510-003 Slate Creek Denali National Park 2 miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Antimony, Arsenic, and Iron Mining Slate Creek - Metals - Antimony, Arsenic, and Iron TMDL, DEC 2014 (PDF, 2.5 MB) Slate Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the turbidity criteria because of historic placer mining activities. Current NPS policy will not permit mining. A recovery plan implementation began in August 1997 and continued through 2002. The recovery plan included restoration objectives for 4 acres of disturbed upland and stream channel areas in the vicinity of the old antimony mine site. Objectives included placement of fill over exposed antimony ore body, reconfiguration of the stream channel, increases in the pH of acidic soils, and revegetation of disturbed soils with willow and alder seedlings. In 2006, Slate Creek was visited by DEC and NPS staff for a general site review of the recovery plan implementation, which was completed in 2002. The 2006 site visit revealed that the recovery plan was not successful and that in many areas actions implemented were no longer performing their functions properly. NPS staff visited Slate Creek twice in the 2007 field season to gather information to develop an amended recovery concept plan. Amended plans were developed to address the surface and groundwater drainage for erosion control and acidic mitigation. Significant reclamation work was conducted in 2010 and included removal of mining debris, movement of tailings piles, and reconfiguration of the stream channel. NPS and DEC staff conducted a site visit in 2011. In several areas the restoration are failing and much of the vegetation failed to establish. Water quality monitoring by the USGS from 2008-2011 indicate that the creek is meeting the turbidity criteria; however exceedances of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for antimony and arsenic were found. Slate Creek was removed from the 303(d) list for turbidity in the 2012 Integrated Report and placed in Category 2. A TMDL was developed and approved by EPA in June 2014 and the water is moved to Category 4a in the 2014-16 Integrated Report for antimony, arsenic, and iron.
SC 4a 30102-604 Akutan Harbor Akutan Island 0.036 square miles Residues Settable Solids Seafood Processing / Waste Akutan Harbor was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the criteria for residues and dissolved gas (DO). The EPA issued two TMDL’s for Akutan Harbor in 1995, moving Akutan Harbor to Category 4a in 1998. The first TMDL was issued to address violations of Residues, limiting seafood Settleable Solids in Akutan Harbor. The other TMDL was issued to address dissolved oxygen by limiting Biochemical Oxygen Demand loading in the harbor. The EPA finalized the associated NPDES permit for this area in spring 1996. Water quality sampling during the summer of 2008, 2009, and 2010, as well as a 2011 benthic survey, indicate that the water quality criteria for dissolved gas in the water column is being met. The harbor remains listed for residues. The Settleable Solids TMDL to address residues remains in effect and implementation of limits in the permit and source control will lead to the removing this water body the from this impairment listing. The seafood processing facility in the harbor is currently under a consent decree that has implemented three remediation pilot projects to determine the best approach to decrease the deposits on the seafloor. Since the 2011 Consent decree began in 2012, the zone of impact has reduced in size from 50 acres to 22 acres. The current APDES permit continues to require DO monitoring to ensure that the residual pile does not negatively impact or cause an impairment of the standard and the proposed permit is implementing the Consent Decree residues remediation requirements. The dissolved gas impairment for Akutan Harbor was removed and placed in Category 2 in the 2012 Integrated Report.
SC 4a 20505-401 Big Lake Wasilla 1,250 acres Petroleum hydrocarbons Total Aromatic Hydrocarbons Motorized Watercraft Big Lake - Petroleum Hydrocarbons TMDL, DEC 2012 (PDF, 1.8 MB) Big Lake was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2006 for non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease (TAH) criteria. A TMDL was completed in May 2012 and approved by the EPA in June 2012 and Big Lake was moved to Category 4a. The impairment was based on sampling performed in the open water months in 2004, 2005 and 2009. Petroleum hydrocarbon (TAH) sampling was conducted in the water column at multiple sites, depths, and degrees of motorized watercraft activity throughout the lake. Sampling sites in areas that received heavier use by motorized watercraft consistently exceeded the water quality criteria for TAH and the concentrations are likely influenced by a combination of good weather and time of season. Specifically, the areas of impairment together equal an estimated 1,250 acres and are seasonal in nature, from May 15 to September 15 with particular impairment issues on two holiday weekends (Memorial Day and Independence Day). The following specific areas in the east basin are the areas of impairment: harbors and marinas, launch areas, and traffic lanes. Sampling was conducted outside these specific areas and exceedances of the WQS were not identified. Two reports support the impairment listing: Big Lake and Lake Lucille Water Quality Monitoring Final Report (September 2, 2004) and Big Lake Water Quality Monitoring Report (June 15, 2006). A third report, Water Quality Monitoring, Big Lake (January 2009) confirmed the impairment. Although no water quality samples were collected below 5 meters, it is considered unlikely that petroleum-contaminated sediment is a concern. The source of petroleum is motorized watercraft. The TMDL includes a description of management measures the community is currently working on or may implement in the future. DEC has funded education/outreach activities on clean boating practices from 2010 to present. Water quality sampling was conducted in the summer of 2013 to document progress towards meeting the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease water quality criteria. The sampling included two 96-hour monitoring events. The lake remains impaired.
SC 4a 20401-004 Campbell Creek Anchorage 9 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Campbell Creek - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2006 (PDF, 2.87 MB) Campbell Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. The Campbell Creek water quality assessment completed by the Municipality of Anchorage in June 1994 investigated several parameters of concern, including temperature, turbidity, zinc, and lead, but concluded that Campbell Creek was water quality limited for FC bacteria only. Water quality sampling was conducted in 2005. A TMDL was developed for FC bacteria and was approved by the EPA on June 15, 2006. Campbell Creek was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4a in the 2006 Integrated Report. In 2014, DEC received a pet waste assessment report; pet waste is a major component of fecal coliform in Campbell Creek. Implementation of the recommendations to address pet waste is ongoing.
SC 4a 20401-402 Campbell Lake Anchorage 125 acres Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Campbell Lake - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2006 (PDF, 2.87 MB) Campbell Lake was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. The Campbell Creek water quality assessment, completed by the Municipality of Anchorage in June 1994, included an assessment of Campbell Lake. The assessment investigated several parameters of concern, including FC bacteria, lead, and zinc, but concluded that Campbell Lake was water quality limited only for FC bacteria. Water quality sampling was conducted in 2005. A TMDL was developed for FC bacteria and was approved by the EPA on June 15, 2006. Campbell Lake was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4a in the 2006 Integrated Report. Implementation of a plan to conduct public outreach and education to prevent human feeding of waterfowl is ongoing; waterfowl are a major source of fecal coliform in Campbell Lake.
SC 4a 20401-003 Chester Creek Anchorage 10.31 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff, Industrial Chester Creek, University Lake, and Westchester Lagoon - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2005 (PDF, 2.32 MB) Chester Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. In April 1993, a water quality assessment was completed on the Chester Creek drainage. Although the assessment identified several parameters of concern for Chester Creek, it was concluded that the waterbody is water quality limited only for FC bacteria. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and approved by the EPA (dated May 2005). Implementation of a plan to conduct public outreach and education to prevent human feeding of waterfowl is ongoing; waterfowl are a major source of fecal coliform in Chester Creek. Chester Creek was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4a in the 2006 Integrated Report.
SC 4a 20505-001 Cottonwood Creek Wasilla 7 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff, Unspecified Septic Sources Cottonwood Creek - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2015 (PDF, 3.9 MB) Cottonwood Creek (13 miles) was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2002/2003 for non-attainment of the residues criteria due to foam and debris. The DEC had received numerous complaints about foam in Cottonwood Creek and foam was observed in the creek in 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2002. An intensive water quality evaluation was conducted, commencing in September 2004. Water quality sampling conducted in 2004, 2005 and 2006 indicated that the foam present in Cottonwood Creek is naturally occurring and to be meeting WQS. Foam was determined to be influenced by natural conditions. Continued water quality sampling in 2006 focused on determining the extent of FC bacteria and temperature exceedances discovered during the sampling for foam, as well as further investigation of the foam. Foam and temperature were determined to be naturally occurring hence meeting WQS. FC bacteria exceeded water quality criteria, and the source(s) is unknown. The DEC conducted a study in 2010 using MST to determine if detected bacteria were from humans, Fecal Coliform Bacteria Source Assessment in the waters of Cottonwood Creek, Wasilla, and Little Campbell Creek, Anchorage (November 2010). Results indicate that human activity is one of the sources of the increased FC bacteria in Cottonwood Creek. A TMDL for the fecal coliform bacteria impairment in Cottonwood Creek was developed and approved by the EPA in May 2015. The DEC funded a project (2013-2015) to develop septic pumping cooperatives for neighborhoods adjacent to Cottonwood Creek and also conducted outreach and education on septic maintenance. DEC also funded a project (2016-2017) to conduct a stormwater infrastructure inventory of the creek. Cottonwood Creek is now in Category 2 for attainment of the residues (foam) criteria and remains impaired for FC bacteria.
SC 4a 30102-606 Dutch Harbor Unalaska Island 0.12 square miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oils & Grease Petroleum Products Industrial, Urban Runoff Dutch Harbor - Petroleum Hydrocarbons TMDL, DEC 2010 (PDF, 3.9 MB) Dutch Harbor was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease standard for petroleum products. An EPA study in August 1994, Water Quality Assessment for Greater Unalaska Bay, concluded that the waterbody was affected by petroleum products. TMDL assessment began in 2006. An existing data compilation was completed, and potential risk sources were identified and assigned priorities. Rigorous field sampling events were conducted in April 2007, September 2007, and September 2008 and included water column and sediment sample collection for BTEX, PAH, and TOC. Results indicate that the water column meets WQS, but several sediment results had surface sheening in exceedance of the standard. The area of impairment has been further refined and reduced as a result of the field sampling and includes two nearshore areas. The area of the harbor that has been found to meet the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease criteria in the water column was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 2 in the 2010 Integrated Report. The TMDL for the remaining impaired areas was completed in August 2010. Dutch Harbor was moved to Category 4a in the 2012 Integrated Report. Implementation of the TMDL will focus on dock and harbor BMPs to minimize any new petroleum hydrocarbon inputs to the area.
SC 4a 20402-002 Eagle River Eagle River 0.3 miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Ammonia, Chlorine, Copper, Lead, Silver Wastewater Treatment Facility Eagle River - Ammonia, Copper, Lead, Silver, Chlorine TMDL, AWWU 1995 (PDF, 475 KB) Eagle River was never Section 303(d) listed, however a TMDL for the waterbody for non-attainment of the standard for toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances, specifically chlorine, ammonia and metals, was completed by the EPA on April 12, 1995 to support the NPDES permit for the wastewater treatment facility, which discharges to the river. The facility continues to operate under an APDES permit. The most recent Eagle River Waste Water Discharge Permit was issued May 23 and became effective July 1, 2014.
SC 4a 20401-005 Fish Creek Anchorage 6.4 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Fish Creek - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2004 (PDF, 1.7 MB) Fish Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria and the turbidity criteria. A 1995 waterbody assessment concluded Fish Creek was impaired only for FC bacteria. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and approved by the EPA in March 2004. Overpopulation of waterfowl in the Cuddy Park Ponds, a portion of Fish Creek, caused a high level of FC bacteria. A multi-agency task force was created to address the problem with remedies were implemented in 2016. In late summer 2016, FC bacteria level had dropped significantly, indicating that the remedies are producing a desired effect.
SC 4a 20401-006 Furrow Creek Anchorage 5.3 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Furrow Creek - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2004 (PDF, 1.7 MB) Furrow Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. Water quality monitoring data from the Municipality of Anchorage show that the levels of FC bacteria exceed the designated use criteria for drinking water, primary contact recreation, and occasionally for secondary contact recreation. The source of the FC bacteria is presumed to be human-caused from urban runoff sources. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and was approved by the EPA in March 2004. In 2014, DEC received a pet waste assessment report; pet waste is a major component of fecal coliform in Furrow Creek. Implementation of the recommendations to address pet waste is ongoing.
SC 4a 30102-602 Iliuliuk Harbor Unalaska Island 0.07 square miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oils & Grease Petroleum Products Urban Runoff   Iliuliuk Harbor was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease standard for petroleum products. An EPA study in August 1994, Water Quality Assessment for Greater Unalaska Bay, concluded the waterbody was affected by petroleum products. TMDL assessment began in 2006. An existing data compilation was completed, and potential risk sources were identified and assigned priorities. Rigorous field sampling events were conducted in April 2007, September 2007, and September 2008 and included water column and sediment sample collection for BTEX, PAH, and TOC. Results indicate that the water column meets criteria set forth in 18 AAC 70, but several sediment results had surface sheening in exceedance of the standard. The area of impairment has been further refined and reduced as a result of the field sampling and includes nearshore areas around docks and harbors. The TMDL was completed in August 2010. Iliuliuk Harbor was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 4a in the 2012 Integrated Report. Implementation of the TMDL will focus on dock and harbor BMPs to minimize any new petroleum hydrocarbon inputs to the area.
SC 4a 30101-501 King Cove King Cove 0.00006 square miles Residues Seafood Waste Residue Seafood Processing / Waste King Cove - Seafood Residues TMDL, DEC, 1998 (PDF, 8.33 MB) King Cove was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1996 for residues. On October 10, 1998, the EPA completed a TMDL for King Cove moving the water to Category 4a in 1998. The original listing was based on historical information provided by the Aleutians East Borough and verified by DEC staff. The information included citizen complaints and photographs, as well as other indications that persistent exceedances of seafood residues were from seafood processing activity adjacent to the waterbody. The waterbody has remained in Category 4a since a TMDL was developed in 1998.
SC 4a 20505-409 Lake Lucille Wasilla N/A Dissolved Gas Low Dissolved Oxygen Urban Runoff Lake Lucille - Dissolved Oxygen TMDL, DEC, 2002 (PDF, 538 KB) Lake Lucille was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the dissolved gas (low DO) criteria and nutrients. A TMDL for Lake Lucille was completed and was approved by the EPA (March 2002) moving the lake to Category 4a in the 2002/2003 Integrated Report. TMDL implementation continues. The next priority action for this waterbody includes developing a stormwater management plan. Water quality data collected by the DEC in 2004, 2005, and 2006 indicate that DO concentrations have been within applicable criteria during open water seasons, but below water quality criteria during times of ice cover in parts of the lake. Additional monitoring was conducted in 2011-2013, finding non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for toxics in lake bed sediments. Lake Lucille is proposed for including on the 303(d) list for Toxic and Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances in the 2014-2016 Integrated Report.
SC 4a 20401-017 Little Campbell Creek Anchorage 8.3 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Little Campbell Creek - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC, 2004 (PDF, 7.77 MB) Little Campbell Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. The water quality assessment for the Campbell Creek drainage indicates that Little Campbell Creek is impaired only for FC bacteria. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and was approved by the EPA in March 2004. Additional monitoring completed in 2010 showed a reduction in FC bacteria concentration compared to historical data; however, concentrations still exceeded state water quality criteria. In 2014, DEC received a pet waste assessment report; pet waste is a major component of fecal coliform in Little Campbell Creek. Implementation of the recommendations to address pet waste is ongoing. Additionally, the National Resource Conservation Service has prioritized working with equestrian facilities in the Little Campbell Creek watershed to reduce bacterial contamination and sediment loading.
SC 4a 20401-024 Little Rabbit Creek Anchorage 5.2 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Little Rabbit Creek - Fecal Coliform BacteriaTMDL, DEC, 2004 (PDF, 1.64 MB) Little Rabbit Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and was approved by the EPA in March 2004. In 2014, DEC received a pet waste assessment report; pet waste is a component of fecal coliform in Little Rabbit Creek. Implementation of the recommendations to address pet waste is ongoing.
SC 4a 20401-018 Little Survival Creek Anchorage 3.0 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Little Survival Creek - Fecal Coliform BacteriaTMDL, DEC, 2004 (PDF, 1.64 MB) Little Survival Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. The sources of the FC bacteria exceedances have been identified as both human and non-human, such as wildlife. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and was approved by the EPA in March 2004.
SC 4a 20701-408 Red Lake and Anton Road Pond Kodiak 0.9 acres Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Iron, Manganese Urban Runoff   Red Lake and Anton Road Pond were placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for metals, specifically iron and manganese. The DEC concluded that Red Lake clearly appears to have exceedances of applicable criteria for iron and manganese because of human actions. A TMDL for the iron and manganese impairments on Red Lake and Anton Road Pond was developed and approved by the EPA in June 2013. With the development of the TMDL, Red Lake and Anton Road Pond were removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4a in the 2012 Integrated Report. Currently, DEC is working with the US Army Corps of Engineers to further characterize the cause, extent, and level of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances.
SC 4a 20401-020 Ship Creek - Glenn Hwy. Bridge. Down to Mouth Anchorage 9 miles, Glenn Hwy. Bridge. to Mouth Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Ship Creek - cal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC, 2004 (PDF, 1.36 MB) Ship Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils and grease criteria. Petroleum products floating on the groundwater were believed to be moving toward Ship Creek and threatening the waterbody. In addition, FC bacteria monitoring data from 1989 to 1994, provided by the Municipality of Anchorage, exceeded the criteria. In 1992, FC bacteria was added to the Section 303(d) listing for Ship Creek as an impairing pollutant. The final FC bacteria TMDL was approved by the EPA in May 2004. An EPA consent decree with the Alaska Railroad Corporation (ARRC) required groundwater monitoring. The monitoring has shown that petroleum product constituents do not pose a threat to the creek. In addition, the DEC conducted monitoring to determine if a persistent sheen existed. This monitoring demonstrated that there was not a persistent sheen, nor were the analytical indicators for petroleum hydrocarbons present in sufficient concentrations to exceed the criteria. Therefore, the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils, and grease impairment for Ship Creek was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 2 in the 2012 Integrated Report. Ship Creek remains impaired for FC bacteria.
SC 4a 30102-603 South Unalaska Bay Unalaska Island 0.015625 square miles Residues, Low Dissolved Oxygen Seafood Waste Residues, Dissolved Gas Seafood Processing Waste South Unalaska Bay was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of both the residues (settleable solids) and dissolved gas (DO) criteria. The EPA issued two TMDLs on February 12, 1995, and revised seafood processing permits to implement TMDL controls thus moving South Unalaska Bay to Category 4a in 1996. Seafood processors discharging into South Unalaska Bay have been implementing TMDL controls. South Unalaska Bay discharge permits are tracked and monitored by the DEC and/or the EPA to ensure that waterbody recovery continues, and the seafood processors are fully implementing their revised permit requirements.
SC 4a 20401-419 University Lake Anchorage 23 acres Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Chester Creek, University Lake, and Westchester Lagoon - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2005 (PDF, 2.32 MB) University Lake was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. The Chester Creek Drainage Water Quality Assessment, focusing on an area that included University Lake, was completed in April 1993. It determined that the waterbody was impaired only for FC bacteria. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and was approved by the EPA (dated May 2005). Implementation of a plan to conduct public outreach and education to prevent human feeding of waterfowl is ongoing; waterfowl are a major source of fecal coliform in University Lake. Additionally, in 2014, DEC received a pet waste assessment report; pet waste is another major component of fecal coliform in University Lake. Implementation of the recommendations to address pet waste is ongoing.
SC 4a 20401-421 Westchester Lagoon Anchorage 73 acres Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Urban Runoff Chester Creek, University Lake, and Westchester Lagoon - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC 2005 (PDF, 2.32 MB) Westchester Lagoon was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the FC bacteria criteria. The Chester Creek Drainage Water Quality Assessment (which also included Westchester Lagoon), from April 1993, indicated Westchester Lagoon was impaired only for FC bacteria. A TMDL for FC bacteria was developed and was approved by the EPA (dated May 2005). Implementation of a plan to conduct public outreach and education to prevent human feeding of waterfowl is ongoing; waterfowl are a major source of fecal coliform in Westchester Lagoon.
SE 4a 10301-005 Duck Creek Juneau 4 miles Residues, Fecal Coliform Bacteria, Turbidity, Dissolved Gas, Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Debris, Fecal Coliform Bacteria, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Iron Urban Runoff, Landfill, Road Runoff, Land Development Duck Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the dissolved gas (low DO), residues (debris), toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances (specifically metals), FC bacteria, and turbidity criteria. TMDLs were completed for all pollutants (turbidity in 1999, FC bacteria and residues in 2000, and dissolved gas and toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances in 2001), and Duck Creek moved to Category 4a in the 2002/2003 Integrated Report. Priority actions identified for this waterbody include: implementing the Duck Creek Management Plan and actions to address loadings identified in TMDLs; conducting monitoring program to determine if recovery actions are improving water quality; maintaining stream flow to provide fish rearing habitat in the stream, dilute pollutants, and prevent salt water intrusion; and working with the City and Borough of Juneau and others to ensure adequate stormwater permitting practices and controls are implemented to restore water quality. According to the 2006 final monitoring report (Watershed Protection and Recovery for Duck Creek, Juneau, AK Project #: ACWA-06-09, Nagorski, Hood, Hoferkamp, July 2006), Duck Creek continued to suffer from low in-stream flow, except for during large precipitation events; DO levels continued to regularly fall below state standards for aquatic life; pH values were centered near and at times below the state water quality criteria of 6.5 for aquatic life, at least during the morning sampling events conducted for this study (variations in pH are expected based on time of day and amount of sunlight); and large amounts of iron flocculate deposits were noted at all sites. Stream cleanup events are conducted annually to address ongoing residues (debris) issues in high-density corridors. Since 1994, many restoration projects have been completed along Duck Creek to improve water quality and fish habitat, including culvert replacement, streambank stabilizations, revegetation projects, and creation of wetlands. However, ongoing land use, ordinance enforcement, and snow disposal on private lands adjacent to Duck Creek continue to impair water quality. In 2016/17, through an ACWA grant (ACWA-17-02) the Southeast Alaska Watershed Coalition and the Juneau Watershed Partnership are coordinating with University of Alaska Southeast to collect water quality data to measure the restoration projects effectiveness. In 2017/18, the water quality assessment continues through an ACWA grant (ACWA-18-01). Stormwater mapping is in progress for Juneau watersheds (creeks include Duck, Jordan, Vanderbilt, Lemon, and Pederson Hill) by the City/Borough of Juneau. The mapping will address the current need for a Geographic Information System (GIS) urban hydrography data layer. A study is being prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Juneau Watershed Partnership to identify, prioritize, and design watershed restoration and mitigation projects for high priority areas.
SE 4a 10203-603 Herring Cove of Silver Bay Sitka 0.159375 square miles Residues Bark & Woody Debris Log Storage from former Pulp Mill Operations Herring Cove of Silver Bay - Residues TMDL, DEC, 1999 (PDF, 455 KB) Herring Cove, a segment of Silver Bay, was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the residues criteria due to bark and woody debris. On September 27, 1999, a TMDL was completed for residues for this segment of Silver Bay. Herring Cove was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4a in the 2002/2003 Integrated Report.
SE 4a 10301-004 Jordan Creek Juneau 3 miles from tide-water upstream Residues Debris Land Development, Road Runoff Jordan Creek - Residues TMDL, DEC, 2005 (PDF, 6.10 MB) Jordan Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1998 for non-attainment of the residues (debris), dissolved gas (low DO), and sediment criteria. Sampling and restoration efforts include water quality monitoring, stream cleanup events, and stormwater best management practices demonstration sites. Excess sediment in the creek lead to poor survival of salmon eggs and low oxygen readings in the substrate. The creek is largely spring fed and cannot transport large volumes of sediment. The stream corridor is under development, considerable iron flocculate deposits are observed, and the lower section regularly goes dry.
TMDLs were complete for residues (2005) and for dissolved gas and sediment (2009) and Jordan Creek was removed from the Section 303(d) list and moved to Category 4a. Past efforts include water quality sampling (DO, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, water temperature) from 2003-2013, yearly community cleanup events, and construction of stormwater best management practices demonstration sites (2009 and 2015). A rain garden, bioswale and snow fence was constructed adjacent to Jordan Creek, at the Airport Shopping Center south of the Glacier Highway. The green infrastructure project intercepts the urban runoff prior to entering the creek, and deters direct discharge of contaminated snow and snow melt into the creek. Stormwater mapping is in progress for Juneau watersheds (creeks include Duck, Jordan, Vanderbilt, Lemon, and Pederson Hill) by City/Borough of Juneau. The mapping will address the current need for a Geographic Information System (GIS) urban hydrography data layer. A study is being prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Juneau Watershed Partnership to identify, prioritize, and design watershed restoration and mitigation projects for high priority areas.
SE 4a 10301-004 Jordan Creek Juneau 3 miles from tide-water up-stream Sediment, Dissolved Gas Sediment, Low Dissolved Oxygen Land Development, Road Runoff Jordan Creek - TMDL, DEC, 2009 (PDF, 3.55 MB) Jordan Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1998 for non-attainment of the residues (debris), dissolved gas (low DO), and sediment criteria. Sampling and restoration efforts include water quality monitoring, stream cleanup events, and stormwater best management practices demonstration sites. Excess sediment in the creek lead to poor survival of salmon eggs and low oxygen readings in the substrate. The creek is largely spring fed and cannot transport large volumes of sediment. The stream corridor is under development, considerable iron flocculate deposits are observed, and the lower section regularly goes dry.
TMDLs were complete for residues (2005) and for dissolved gas and sediment (2009) and Jordan Creek was removed from the Section 303(d) list and moved to Category 4a. Past efforts include water quality sampling (DO, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, water temperature) from 2003-2013, yearly community cleanup events, and construction of stormwater best management practices demonstration sites (2009 and 2015). A rain garden, bioswale and snow fence was constructed adjacent to Jordan Creek, at the Airport Shopping Center south of the Glacier Highway. The green infrastructure project intercepts the urban runoff prior to entering the creek, and deters direct discharge of contaminated snow and snow melt into the creek. Stormwater mapping is in progress for Juneau watersheds (creeks include Duck, Jordan, Vanderbilt, Lemon, and Pederson Hill) by City/Borough of Juneau. The mapping will address the current need for a Geographic Information System (GIS) urban hydrography data layer. A study is being prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Juneau Watershed Partnership to identify, prioritize, and design watershed restoration and mitigation projects for high priority areas.
SE 4a 10203-602 Klag Bay West Chichagof Island 0.09 square miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Arsenic, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Silver, Zinc Mining Klag Bay - Toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substancesTMDL, DEC, 2009 (PDF, 4.56 MB) Klag Bay was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1996 for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for metals, specifically arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Past mining activities resulted in the deposition of large amounts of tailings in Klag Bay. Studies conducted by the Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and EPA documented high levels of metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc) in the bay’s sediments that appear to be causing abnormalities in blue mussels. Based on the mercury in bald eagle blood and marine invertebrates from Klag Bay, Chichagof Island, Alaska (USFWS, 2001), the State Environmental Public Health Program (EPHP) concluded that eating clams and mussels from Klag Bay does not pose an appreciable health risk. A 2009 TMDL for metals impairments moved the water from Category 5 to Category 4a. Based on the WLA, no future discharge of mine waste is permitted in the area until such time as the WQS are met or the TMDL is revised. The TMDL recommended monitored natural attenuation, institutional controls (future development restrictions), and posting warning signs. In August 2014, DEC conducted more sampling of mussels and clams to evaluate whether recreational and subsistence harvesting of seafood in Klag Bay, Alaska poses any health risk. The study reported similar metal concentrations in sediment and shellfish. Arsenic and mercury were detected in sediments exceeding the PEL values. The shellfish metal concentration data confirms that at least some partition of the metals present in the tailings are bioavailable and are bioaccumulating. The Department of Health and Social Services reviewed the 2014 data and concluded that based on existing contaminant data, eating clams and mussels from Klag Bay does not pose an appreciable risk to public health. Warning signs are currently posted at the Klag Bay Mine.
SE 4a 10301-001 Lemon Creek Juneau 6 miles Turbidity, Sediment Turbidity, Sediment Urban Runoff, Gravel Mining Lemon Creek - Sediment & Turbidity TMDL, DEC, 1995 (PDF, 5.76 MB) Lemon Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the criteria for turbidity, sediment, and for concerns about habitat modification. A waterbody recovery plan that included a TMDL was prepared and approved for this waterbody in fall 1995, and Lemon Creek was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 4a in the 1996 Integrated Report. Waterbody recovery plan implementation began during fall 1995. The University of Alaska Southeast conducted a sediment assessment. This assessment defined concentrations of natural nonpoint source sediment within Lemon Creek, where active glacial processes contribute to sediment problems. A paired watershed study was conducted from May 2002 through June 2003 to ascertain the roles of glacier processes on watershed sediment discharge. This study concluded that in systems substantially influenced by glacier and mass wasting processes, the traditional total suspended solids-stream discharge relationship is not particularly meaningful because some of the most pronounced sediment events are associated with processes that are not well correlated with stream discharge. Priority actions for this water include implementing control actions and monitoring as recommended in the TMDL document. Stormwater mapping is in progress for Juneau watersheds (creeks include Duck, Jordan, Vanderbilt, Lemon, and Pederson Hill) by the City/Borough of Juneau. The mapping will address the current need for a GIS urban hydrography data layer. A study is being prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Juneau Watershed Partnership to identify, prioritize, and design watershed restoration and mitigation projects for high priority areas.
SE 4a 10301-014 Pederson Hill Creek Juneau 3.56 miles Fecal Coliform Bacteria Fecal Coliform Bacteria Septic Tanks Pederson Hill Creek - Fecal Coliform Bacteria TMDL, DEC, 2008 (PDF, 1.53 MB) Pederson Hill Creek was placed on the 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies in 1990 for non-attainment of the fecal coliform bacteria WQS. Failing septic systems within the watershed were identified as the probable pollutant source. Fecal coliform bacteria contamination had been documented since 1985. A 2006 assessment and a 2008 TMDL for fecal coliform bacteria followed. The water moved from Category 5 to Category 4a in 2010. In 2011, the municipal sewer system was extended in the Pederson Hill Creek watershed; sewer system was not extended on Engineer Cut-off Road. Additional fecal coliform monitoring occurred in 2012, 2013, and 2014 showing fecal coliform bacteria above WQS; Microbial Source Tracking (MST) tests were also conducted on 2013 and 2014 samples. Both human and horse bacteroidetes were detected, however, the horse bacteroidetes were detected below instrument detection levels, and not quantifiable. Fecal coliform bacteria and human bacteroidetes continue to be detected in the surface water even though nearly all of the residential and commercial area buildings are connected to the sewer system. Potential sources may be stormwater runoff from an upgradient horse stable, transient persons, camper vehicles discharging holding tanks, and/or break(s) in the sewer system. Stormwater mapping is in progress for Juneau watersheds (creeks include Duck, Jordan, Vanderbilt, Lemon, and Pederson Hill) by the City/Borough of Juneau. The mapping will address the current need for a GIS urban hydrography data layer. A study is being prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Juneau Watershed Partnership to identify, prioritize, and design watershed restoration and mitigation projects for high priority areas.
SE 4a 10303-004 Pullen Creek (Lower Mile) Skagway Lower 1.5 mile of Pullen Creek Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals – Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Zinc Industrial Pullen Creek - Metals TMDL, DEC, 2010 (PDF, 3.99 MB) Pullen Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances standard for metals, specifically cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. The lower mile of Pullen Creek was previously listed with the Skagway Harbor Section 303(d) listing, but was segmented out into its own listing in the 2006 Integrated Report. Baseline water quality monitoring and a waterbody recovery plan for Pullen Creek was completed in 2006. Assessment results found no elevated levels of toxics in the water column. Elevated levels of lead, zinc, and barium were found in stream bottom sediments and adjoining banks. Elevated levels of metals were also found near railroad transport areas where ore was transported in the past. Several restoration projects which were completed in 2009. A TMDL was developed in 2010 and Pullen Creek was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 4a in the 2010 Integrated Report. In 2012, the Taiya Inlet Watershed Council completed the Stormwater Best Management Practices: Protecting Pullen Creek, an Urban Stream; several BMPs noted in this report were completed in 2013. A rain garden at 11th and Broadway was completed in 2014/2015 (FY15 ACWA grant).
SE 4a 10203-601 Silver Bay Sitka 0.106 square miles Residues, Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Pulp Residues, Logs, Bark & Woody Debris, Sediment Toxicity due to Wood Decomposition By-products Industrial, Historical Pulp Mill Activity Silver Bay - Residues, Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances (Metals) TMDL, DEC, 2010 (PDF, 3.99 MB) Silver Bay was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the residues (sludge), toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances, and dissolved gas (DO) criteria. A report titled Final Expanded Site Inspection Report, Alaska Pulp Corporation, Sitka, Alaska, prepared in February 1995 substantiated water quality exceedances. Discharges from the mill ceased in March 1993. Based on a DEC June 1993 water quality assessment the pollutant parameters of concern were sludge and DO. A contaminated site Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Silver Bay was contracted by Alaska Pulp Company from July 1996 to February 1999. The DEC issued a ROD in 1999. The remedial action objective identified by the ROD was natural recovery, with long-term monitoring. A TMDL was developed for Silver Bay in 2003, with waste load allocations for residues and sediment toxicity. Monitoring data show that Silver Bay is no longer impaired for DO. Although DO concentration below the criteria have been observed in deep water between Sawmill Cove and Herring Cove, no correlation between these levels and the presence of wood waste has been identified, and no current source of DO depression is known. Therefore, the DO pollutant parameter was removed from the Silver Bay listing, and a TMDL was not developed for dissolved gas. In 1999, a TMDL was completed for residues for the Herring Cove segment of Silver Bay. A TMDL for residues and sediment toxicity was completed in 2003. Based on the 2003 TMDL, the residues and toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances impairments for Silver Bay were removed from the Section 303(d)/Category list and placed in Category 4a in the 2002/2003 Integrated Report.
SE 4a 10303-601 Skagway Harbor Skagway 0.001562 square miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oils & Grease Petroleum hydrocarbons Industrial   Skagway Harbor was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 due to non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for metals in sediment. Studies concluded that a decrease in infauna diversity in the harbor was present. Samples collected in 2007/2008 concluded that petroleum hydrocarbons, not metals, are the primary cause for the decrease in fauna diversity in the harbor. A TMDL for petroleum was completed in 2011, and the harbor moved to Category 4a in the 2012 Integrated Report. As part of the TMDL data collection efforts, the east harbor (small boat harbor area) was found to be attaining WQS criteria. The 2014 Ore Dock Sampling and Analysis Plan proposed dredging to support construction of a new dock, generate fill material for the project, and remove legacy sediment contamination. Open-water disposal was not proposed. Pre-dredge sampling and sediment characterization occurred in January and June 2015. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results exceed federal threshold for lead; characterizing the sediment as hazardous waste if removed. The sediment are unsuitable for direct placement as fill in upland or marine environments, and require disposal at a Subtitle C landfill. Treatment of dredge materials has the potential to reduce the leachability of the lead. A treatability study and dredging was planned for 2015, however, Skagway residents voted down the proposed revised harbor property lease, ending the harbor development project. The agencies, DEC, EPA and USACE, continue working with the various responsible parties to coordinate and move forward with a risk assessment and cleanup of the contaminated sediments.
SE 4a 10103-602 Thorne Bay Prince of Wales Island 0.011718 square miles Residues Bark & Woody Debris Historical Log Transfer Facility Thorne Bay - Wood Residues TMDL, DEC, 2007 (PDF, 984 KB) Thorne Bay, in the area associated with the historical marine LTF, was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1994 for non-attainment of the residues criteria due to bark and wood debris. Log transfer and storage activities began in 1962 and caused the accumulation of woody debris on the bottom of the head of Thorne Bay. Log transfer and storage activities ended in 2000, and the operator, the USFS, does not plan to resume activities; all equipment and facilities have been removed. A key feature of the recovery of the former log transfer and storage area is the Thorne River, which empties into the bay and deposits sediments onto a large sand and gravel delta, where they mix with debris and aid in biological recovery. The LSA: Dive surveys of the LSA conducted in July 2001 and June 2002 documented 1.1 acres of bark and wood debris on the marine bottom. Dive surveys in 2003 and 2005 detailed the benthic health of 161 acres of the former LSA. Findings included the following: (1) bark debris was mostly decomposed to small fragments and was mixed with natural sediments; (2) the bottom was biologically recovered, exhibiting mostly mature “Stage III” biological communities; and (3) the site was an “extremely healthy coastal embayment.” The DEC determined, based on the detailed benthic assessment, that the residues criteria is met in the former LSA. The residues impairment for the LSA was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 2 in the 2004 Integrated Report. The LSA remains in Category 2 with no known impairments. The LTF: Dive surveys conducted in 1988 and 1990 documented approximately 55 acres of bark accumulation in the LTF. Dive surveys of the LTF conducted in July 2001 and June 2002 documented 2.6 and 1.1 acres of bark and wood debris, respectively, on the marine bottom. An April 2004 dive survey of the LTF documented 6.5 acres of bark and woody debris. The former LTF remained on the Section 303(d) list for a defined area of approximately 35 acres between the LTF shoreline and the boundary of the former LSA established in the 2003-2005 benthic assessment. A December 2007 dive survey documented a reduced area of impaired marine bottom of only 7.5 acres and the rest of the previous area of impairment as meeting the residues criterion and attaining WQS. These findings suggest that biological recovery is proceeding and is well advanced within the area associated with the LTF. A residues TMDL for the Thorne Bay LTF was completed and approved by the EPA on May 8, 2007. With the completed TMDL for residues, the area of Thorne Bay associated with the LTF was removed from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4a.
SE 4a 10301-017 Vanderbilt Creek Juneau 1.5 miles Turbidity, Sediment, Residues Turbidity, Sediment, Debris Urban Runoff Vanderbilt Creek - Sediment & Turbidity TMDL, DEC, 1995 (PDF, 12.38 MB) Vanderbilt Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the criteria for turbidity, residues (debris), sediment, and with concerns for habitat modification. A TMDL was prepared in 1995 and Vanderbilt Creek moved to Category 4a. Watershed plans including protection, recovery and management, and a wetland assessment were completed in 2007/08. Debris removal efforts occurred in 2009 (FY09 ACWA grant), resulting in annual stream cleanup events. Urban runoff continues to be a major concern for the creek. Other concerns include barriers to fish passage, bank erosion and riparian damage. The Southeast Alaska Land Trust is pursuing a 37-acre parcel mitigation project purchase in Vanderbilt Creek headwaters. If accomplished, this parcel would be donated to City/Borough of Juneau (CBJ) in exchange for a conservation easement on the parcel and on an abutting CBJ parcel of 21 acres. DOT road upgrades and pedestrian improvements are planned along Vanderbilt Hill Road, adjacent to the creek. DEC and USFWS continued collaboration with DOT on this project resulted in the inclusion of green infrastructure to address stormwater runoff.
Stormwater mapping is in progress for Juneau watersheds (creeks include Duck, Jordan, Vanderbilt, Lemon, and Pederson Hill) by the City/Borough of Juneau. The mapping will address the current need for a GIS urban hydrography data layer. A study is being prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Juneau Watershed Partnership to identify, prioritize, and design watershed restoration and mitigation projects for high priority areas.
SE 4a 10102-601 Ward Cove Ketchikan 0.39 square miles Dissolved Gas Biochemical Oxygen Demand Industrial Ward Cove - Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) TMDL, EPA, 1994 (PDF, 35 KB) Ward Cove was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the residues and dissolved gas criteria due to pulp residues, logs, bark and woody debris, and low DO concentrations from historical discharges and associated activity from the Ketchikan Pulp Company (KPC) pulp mill operations. The KPC site is located on the shoreline of Ward Cove, near Ketchikan, Alaska. The site is divided into two Operable Units (OUs): the Uplands Operable Unit and the Marine Operable Unit. The site is part of the EPA’s Superfund cleanup program. The sediment toxicity impairment was removed from Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 2 in the 2006 Integrated Report. A TMDL was developed for residues and dissolved gas (DO) in 2007; these impairments were removed from Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 4a in the 2008 Integrated Report. Brief chronology of events: 1954-1997 KPC operated a dissolving sulfite pulp mill; 1991-2000 site investigations; 2000 Record of Decisions signed; 1998-2010 remedial actions; 2001-2010 long-term monitoring; 2005, 2010 and 2015 5-year reviews. The 2015 third Five-Year Review Report concludes all remedies at the site are protective of human health and the environment. There continues to be considerable redevelopment in the area, however ICs remain effective and protective of the Uplands and Marine OUs. The next five-year review is due August 2020.
SE 4a 10102-601 Ward Cove Ketchikan 0.39 square miles Residues, Dissolved Gas Logs, Bark & Woody Debris, Low Dissolved Oxygen Industrial Ward Cove - Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) TMDL, EPA, 1994 (PDF, 35 KB) Ward Cove was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 for non-attainment of the residues and dissolved gas criteria due to pulp residues, logs, bark and woody debris, and low DO concentrations from historical discharges and associated activity from the Ketchikan Pulp Company (KPC) pulp mill operations. The KPC site is located on the shoreline of Ward Cove, near Ketchikan, Alaska. The site is divided into two Operable Units (OUs): the Uplands Operable Unit and the Marine Operable Unit. The site is part of the EPA’s Superfund cleanup program. The sediment toxicity impairment was removed from Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 2 in the 2006 Integrated Report. A TMDL was developed for residues and dissolved gas (DO) in 2007; these impairments were removed from Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and moved to Category 4a in the 2008 Integrated Report. Brief chronology of events: 1954-1997 KPC operated a dissolving sulfite pulp mill; 1991-2000 site investigations; 2000 Record of Decisions signed; 1998-2010 remedial actions; 2001-2010 long-term monitoring; 2005, 2010 and 2015 5-year reviews. The 2015 third Five-Year Review Report concludes all remedies at the site are protective of human health and the environment. There continues to be considerable redevelopment in the area, however ICs remain effective and protective of the Uplands and Marine OUs. The next five-year review is due August 2020.
IN 4b 40501-001 Cabin Creek Nabesna 1.5 miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Manganese, Arsenic, Iron, Copper & Cadmium Mine Tailings   Cabin Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1996 for non-attainment of the criteria for toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances, specifically the metal manganese, due to the Nabesna Mine Site - a patented mining claim area located on private property within the legislative boundary of Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve. Cabin Creek is located on park lands within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The USGS and NPS completed a field sampling component of an environmental geochemical site characterization study at the Nabesna Mine in 1997 (results published in the USGS Professional Paper 1619). NPS and DEC staff visited the site in June 1997 to discuss the specifics of a waterbody recovery plan with the owner of the Nabesna Mine property. Acidic mill tailings located down slope of the mill building (situated on both private and NPS-managed lands), may be compromising the water quality of Cabin Creek. Elevated metal concentrations were detected periodically in the Cabin Creek drainage within the 1 mile reach below the mill tailings. Recovery plan objectives include re-construction of the existing historic drainage ditches around the tailings to divert stormwater and seasonal snow melt run-off away from (bypass) the tailings. In the 2002/2003 Integrated Report, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and iron were added to the 1996 Section 303(d) listing as contaminants of concern. The NPS implemented a surface water flow mitigation plan in 2004 and re-directed surface water flows away from the tailings to minimize introduction of metals into Cabin Creek. Visual observations by the NPS indicate that the water flow mitigation work has intercepted 80% of the water that previously flowed across the tailings. It was determined that Cabin Creek met the Category 4b criteria and thus the waterbody was removed from Section 303(d)/Category 5 list and placed in Category 4b in the 2004 Integrated Report. A Category 4b rationale was been developed as part of this process and is on record and available upon request. Water quality monitoring was conducted during spring run-off in May 2007. The volume of water flowing across the tailings was substantially diminished, which resulted in lower volumes of water carrying dissolved metals. Additional water quality sampling was conducted in 2009 and was used, among other things, to validate the effectiveness of the on-the-ground controls. The NPS is utilizing the CERCLA process to respond to the release of hazardous substances at the Nabesna Mine Site. This response consists of performing a non-time critical removal action (NTCRA). A NTCRA requires the development of an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Evaluation (EE/CA). Through this process, current site conditions and existing data are duly considered in furthering the removal action selection process. The selected removal action will address unacceptable human health and ecological risks associated with site contaminants. Field activities for the EE/CA investigation were conducted in the fall of 2009. A draft “Supplemental Site Investigation” report was developed which detailed sampling results. No groundwater impacts were documented at the site. Surface water impacts downstream include elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc. The NPS conducted a site visit in September of 2011 and found the diversion ditches were functioning as designed and continue to divert surface flow, which originates off-site away from the mine tailings. The EE/CA report is under internal NPS review and the final report is expected to be issued in 2016.
SC 4b 20505-004 Little Susitna River Matanuska-Susitna Borough 8.5 miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oils & Grease Petroleum Hydrocarbons Motorized Watercraft   Little Susitna River, located in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough, is proposed for Category 4b as water quality threatened for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the 2014/2016 Integrated Report. Water quality sampling conducted during 2007-2014 indicates persistent total aromatic hydrocarbon (TAH) exceedances. The source of the TAH pollution is motorized boats. The impairment is 8.5 river miles surrounding the state-operated Public Use Facility, from river mile 17.5 to river mile 26 during the month of August at the heaviest times of motorized boat use. Actions by the Alaska Board of Fisheries (effective January 2017) to restrict fishing from a boat with a carbureted 2-stroke motor is expected to reduce petroleum pollution sources and allow the waterbody to recover. As a result of the Board of Fisheries action, DEC is proposing to place the Little Susitna River in Category 4b as impaired with pollution controls other than a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in the 2014/2016 Integrated Report.
SC 4b 10102-502-001 Tongass Narrows 1 Tongass Narrows, Eastern Channel, SE of Thomas Basing 0.002 square miles Residues Seafood Residues, Seafood Processing Wastes Seafood Processing Facility   Tongass Narrows 1, located in Ketchikan Harbor was placed in Category 4b in the 2012 Integrated Report due to non-attainment of the residues criteria. A review of seafloor surveys (2010-2011) indicated that continuous coverage of seafood residue in excess of 1.5 acres existed at the Trident Seafoods Ketchikan Cannery Plant. The impairment included an area of 1.89 acres, encompassing the Trident outfall and ZOD. The facility discontinued ground waste discharge from the outfall in 2008, except for some ground salmon head bones discharge from a by-product process line in 2009 and 2010, and has used screens since that time to capture seafood waste for transport and disposal in open water approximately 13 miles southeast of Ketchikan near Bold Island (permit AKG520002). In 2012, Trident and EPA reached a Consent Decree (CD) (No. 11-1616 Amended Consent Decree) agreement that requires reducing its discharge of seafood processing waste and residues, monitoring benthic recovery, and reducing the Zone of Deposit (ZOD) and Zone of Impact (ZOI) associated with seafood waste deposits. The consent decree specifies that the ZOD and ZOI associated with the Ketchikan facility will be reduced to 0.5 acres within 3 years of the Effective Date of the CD (June 18, 2012). Dive surveys conducted in 2013, 2014 and 2015, found 1.04, 1.13, and 1.14 acres of seafood waste deposits (respectively).
SC 4b N/A Exxon Valdez Beaches Prince William Sound – Alaska Peninsula 36 locations 14.08 (total) miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oil & Grease Petroleum Products Exxon Valdez Crude Oil Spill  

Exxon Valdez Beaches were placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1990 due to non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils, and grease criteria. The 22 Exxon Valdez affected beaches and adjacent marine waters were later placed in Category 4b because it was believed that a TMDL process would be redundant to the efforts of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council and restoration projects specified in the Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan. Several studies have been funded to address the persistent, lingering subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. The studies address (1) locating the remaining lingering oil, using field sampling and modeling, (2) identifying the factors that have slowed the natural removal of the oil, (3) identifying and evaluating candidate bioremediation technologies, (4) evaluating the potential for biodegradation of Exxon Valdez oil in laboratory columns, (5) pilot testing of candidate bioremediation technologies, and (6) determining the linkage between lingering oil on the shoreline and habitat use by recovering species, namely sea otters and harlequin ducks. The project reports include:

  • The 2010 Assessment of the Areal Distribution and Amount of Lingering Oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska uses GIS modeling tools to determine the extent of shoreline that has the potential to contain lingering oil in the sediment.
  • The 2010 Distribution of Subsurface Oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (Restoration Project 070801) maps the distribution and assesses patterns of lingering oil.
  • The 2014 Pilot Studies of Bioremediation of the Exxon Valdez Oil in Prince William Sound Beaches (Restoration Project 11100836) evaluates whether the oil lingering in the subsurface could be bio-remediated.
  • The 2014 Update Injured Resources and Services acknowledges the recovery of sea otters, Barrow’s goldeneye, harlequin ducks, clams, and mussels; 13 resources and four services remain in recovery status.
  • The 2015 Priorities, Methods, and Costs for Restoration of Lingering Subsurface Oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska (Restoration Project 15150121) provides guidance on known or predicted lingering oil sites considered for restoration.

DEC is realigning the listed beaches with the 63 beaches identified by current and ongoing Trustee Council studies. Since many of these locations are connected and/or overlapped, the listed beaches will be revised to a total of 36 locations. An updated Category 4b Rationale that follows the progress of the 2015 study on priorities, methods, and costs for restoration of lingering subsurface oil (Restoration Project 15150121) to identify restoration needs and alternatives is available upon request.

IN 5 40402-010 Crooked Creek Watershed: Bonanza Crooked Deadwood Ketchem Mammoth Mastodon Porcupine Creeks North of Fairbanks 79 miles Turbidity Turbidity Placer Mining   Crooked Creek watershed was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1992 for non-attainment of the turbidity criteria. A water quality assessment was completed in August 1995. Monitoring conducted in the early 1990s documented major improvements in water quality. The assessment called for the development of a waterbody recovery plan to restore and maintain habitat quality; however, this plan has not been developed. The DEC prepared a monitoring and sampling plan and collected data in 2014 and 2016. Limited data was collected in 2015. The monitoring results will provide current data that will determine if a TMDL is needed for Crooked Creek.
IN 5 30501-004 Kuskokwim River (Red Devil) Red Devil 0.189 miles: 1,000 feet, 900 feet down river and 100 feet upriver from mouth of Red Devil Creek Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals – Antimony, Arsenic, Mercury Mining   Kuskokwim River was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2010 for non-attainment of the criteria for toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances, specifically antimony, arsenic, and mercury. Sampling data collected in 1971, 1979, 1988, and 1999 have documented exceedances of the criteria for the metals antimony, arsenic, and mercury. BLM conducted a Remedial Investigation to define the nature and extent of the contamination in groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment from 2010-2014. In summer 2015, BLM conducted additional groundwater monitoring and further characterization of Kuskokwim River sediments. In 2013-2015, BLM has developed 3 versions of a draft Feasibility Study which evaluates potential remedial alternatives. On November 4, 2015, BLM provided a draft Proposed Plan to DEC, EPA, and other agencies which outlines their preferred alternative from the Feasibility Study.
IN 5 30501-003 Red Devil Creek Red Devil 1.5 mile of creek Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals – Antimony, Arsenic, Mercury Inactive Mine   Red Devil Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2010 for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria, specifically antimony, arsenic, and mercury. Sampling and data collected in 1971, 1979, 1988, and 1999 have documented exceedances for the metals antimony, arsenic, and mercury. The Red Devil mine site investigation is led by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) through the CERCLA process. The BLM began sampling, including surface soil, groundwater, sediment and surface water, for a Remedial Investigation Report in 2010 and has continued sampling through present along with implementing remedial actions to prevent or reduce mine tailing erosion and runoff into Red Devil Creek. BLM maintains an updated web site of site activities and documents //www.blm.gov/programs/public-safety-and-fire/abandoned-mine-lands/regional-information/alaska/projects/red-devil-mine In 2014, BLM conducted a non-time critical removal action to remove tailings from Red Devil Creek and recontour the creek banks to prevent further erosion of tailings into the creek. In 2013-2015, BLM has developed 3 versions of a draft Feasibility Study which evaluates potential remedial alternatives. On November 4, 2015, BLM provided a draft Proposed Plan to DEC, EPA, and other agencies which outlines their preferred alternative from the Feasibility Study.
IN 5 40510-004 Stampede Creek Denali National Park 2.3 miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Antimony Mining, Abandoned Mine   Stampede Creek was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2012 for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for antimony, with exceedances resulting from past mining activity within Denali National Park and Preserve. The largest antimony producer in Alaska, Stampede Mine, was located near the headwaters of the creek. Mining at the Stampede Mine ceased in 1970 and the NPS will not permit future mining. Historical data collected by the NPS from 25 years ago reported exceedances of the criteria for antimony. More recent sampling conducted by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (with some funding and support from the NPS) within the last 5 years confirmed that antimony exceedances persist. Currently, there are fine tailings in the banks of Stampede Creek and tailings piles adjacent to the creek.
SC 5 30101-500 Cold Bay King Cove, Alaska Peninsula 0.000015 square miles Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oil & Grease Petroleum Products Military, Fuel Storage   Cold Bay was placed on the 1998 Section 303(d) list for non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils, and grease criteria for petroleum products. Enough evidence exists to indicate that water quality violations occurred on a persistent (though intermittent) basis. Because the cleanup of petroleum contaminated soils at the Cold Bay Formally Used Defense Site is considered a high-priority project, the USACE completed an assessment and recovery plan. A release investigation of the seep at the foot of the high sea bluff found high levels of DRO in beach soils (more than 10,000 parts per million) and petroleum contamination in sediments below the high tide line. Four feet of free product was found in a monitoring well in the bluff. The seep weeps a mixture of petroleum and water intermittently along 100 to 300 feet of bluff. In the summer of 2002, the USACE used a pilot test to evaluate several passive and active technologies for recovering product before it would reach the waters of Cold Bay. The results of this test were used to develop a feasibility study to determine the best solution for the beach seeps. The feasibility study was completed in 2003. In accordance with the ROD, the USACE agreed to dig and treat petroleum contaminated soil to a depth of 15 feet below ground surface. Contaminated soil deeper than 15 feet below ground surface will undergo in situ treatment. Soil excavation and treatment were conducted in 2006. For the drum disposal and beach seep area, a two-phased approach was selected. In summer 2006, soil 15 feet below ground surface and above was excavated and thermally treated. In 2007, the USACE installed bioventing, SVE and high vacuum extraction (HVE) wells to continue remediating the area. The amount of contamination discharging to the beach decreased markedly. The DEC’s Contaminated Sites Program reports that the petroleum sheen is getting smaller every time inspections are made on site. The Contaminated Sites Program receives monthly reports showing the amount of free product recovered and petroleum product degraded as a result of the SVE and HVE systems in operation. In July 2009, the USACE reassessed the petroleum seep at the foot of the beach bluff. They found the longitudinal area of the seep has reduced by two-thirds since it was last evaluated in 2007.
SC 5 30203-001 Egegik River Egegik 0.5 mile Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oil & Grease Petroleum Products Spills, Fuel Tanks, Underground Fuel Tanks   Egegik River was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2002/2003 for non-attainment of the petroleum hydrocarbons, oils, and grease criteria for petroleum products. Contamination from at least three major sources has migrated into the groundwater and through soils into the Egegik River: the former locations of two 10,000-gallon gasoline tanks, an unlined diesel tank farm, and the underground threaded-coupling pipeline from the tank farm on the bluff that leaked gasoline in April 2001. The area was used to house fuel tanks, which were filled from a barge in the river. Extensive contamination is suspected. Site characterization of the entire site has not been completed. It is believed that the old fuel tanks were in place and active from the 1960s through the 1990s and continue to be a problem. The river inundates the soils behind the seawall (which are contaminated) regularly when the tide comes up. The monthly high tides usually breach the seawall and flood the area. Fuel from the April 2001 gasoline spill reaches the water continuously. It appears that the groundwater is hydrologically connected to the river and that the fuels will continue to migrate to the river. Photographic documentation shows petroleum daylighting into the river and sheen on the water. The problem is likely to remain chronic unless the contaminated soils are excavated and free product recovery is completed.
SC 5 20505-409 Lake Lucille Wasilla 4.5 acres in NE area of lake and 1.1 acres in NW area of lake Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Lead and Zinc Stormwater Discharge   Lake Lucille is proposed to be placed on the Section 303(d) list in the 2014-2016 Integrated Report for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for Fresh Water Uses based on water column and sediment sampling that the DEC conducted in 2011-2013 surrounding two stormwater discharge outfalls. The high concentration of metals (lead and zinc) in lake bed sediments in Lake Lucille support a conclusion that increased metals concentrations are the result of runoff from urban and commercial development within this drainage area as discharged through the two stormwater outfalls into the lake bed sediments. Exceedances of the NOAA Threshold Effects Level (TEL) and Probable Effects Level (PEL) benchmarks occur during times of active stormwater discharge and during times of dry weather with no discharge. The pollutants are copper, lead, and zinc in lake bed sediments at the stormwater discharge outfalls located along the north shore in the east end and west end of the lake. Copper levels exceed the TEL but not the PEL. The source of contamination is stormwater runoff. The areas proposed for impairment are 4.5 acres in the northeast area of the lake surrounding the stormwater discharge outfall and 1.1 acres in the northwest area of the lake surrounding the stormwater discharge outfall. 367 acres of Lake Lucille was previously placed on the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list for non-attainment of the criteria for dissolved gas (low DO) and nutrients in the 1994 Integrated Report. A TMDL for Lake Lucille was completed and was approved by the EPA (March 2002), thus moving the dissolved gas impairment for Lake Lucille lake from the Section 303(d)/Category 5 list to Category 4a in the 2002/2003 Integrated Report.
SC 5 20505-004 Little Susitna River Matanuska-Susitna Borough 8.5 miles Turbidity Turbidity Motorized Watercraft   Little Susitna River, located in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough, is proposed for Category 5 Section 303(d) listing as non-attainment of the turbidity standard in the 2014/2016 Integrated Report. Continuous turbidity monitoring was conducted during salmon fisheries in 2008-2011. The 24-hour average of turbidity in the waterbody (duration threshold) exceeds the most stringent turbidity criterion of 5 NTUs over natural conditions (magnitude threshold) in more than 10% of the samples measured (frequency threshold). The impaired uses are water supply, contact recreation, and secondary recreation. The river is considered water quality threatened for the use of growth and propagation of fish, shellfish, other aquatic life and wildlife. The impairment area is 8.5 river miles from River Mile 17.5 (7.5 river miles) downstream of the state-operated Public Use Facility boat launch to River Mile 26 (approximately 1 river mile) upstream of the Public Use Facility boat launch) during the months of late May - June and late July - August coinciding with the peak king salmon and silver salmon fisheries respectively. The source of turbidity pollution is motorized boats. Therefore the Little Susitna River is proposed for Category 5 Section 303(d) listing in the 2014/2016 Integrated Report.
SC 5 20402-001 Matanuska River Palmer 0.5 mile Residues Debris Landfill   Matanuska River was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2002/2003 for non-attainment of the residues criteria for debris. An active open dump is located on and in the Matanuska River just north of Eagle Drive in Palmer. Numerous derailed railroad cars, dozens of automobiles, scrap metal, old 55-gallon drums, and household refuse and appliances are visible in the river and riparian area. Debris continues in the river and riparian area upstream for approximately 1/2 mile. This open dump is within the Drinking Water Protection Area for a minimum of three public water systems. In August 2004, the DEC conducted a site assessment study. Activities included characterizing and quantifying the debris, mapping the site, and collecting surface water, sediment, and soil samples. No hazardous or petroleum contamination was discovered. After characterizing the debris, options were developed for possible debris removal as part of the study. Following subsequent meetings with involved parties, in March 2005, the USACE issued a jurisdictional determination to the Alaska Railroad Corporation, as the property owner, that the railroad cars that are below ordinary high water serve as bank stabilization material and should not be removed. As such, these items are no longer in violation of WQS. However, the remaining debris on the slope above ordinary high water has a potential of entering the water column, and the upper layers are not considered bank stabilization material. To date, the ARRC has installed concrete jersey barriers to prevent vehicular access to the site. DEC is currently developing a TMDL for the site.
SC 5 30101-502 Popof Strait East Aleutians Borough 0.07 square miles Residues Seafood Waste Residue Seafood Processor   Popof Strait was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1996 for non-attainment of the residues criteria due to seafood waste residues. Information provided by the Aleutians East Borough, and verified by DEC staff, included citizen complaints, photographs, and other indications that persistent exceedances of “seafood residue” occur from a seafood processor operating adjacent to the waterbody. The seafood processing facility located in Sand Point has installed a fish meal plant that reduces the discharge of solid wastes to Popof Strait. Dive surveys from April 2000 to July 2015 document the permitted 1.0 acre ZOD has been exceeded for over 15 years. The 2014 dive survey measured the area of the ZOD at 4.90 acres making the impaired area 3.90 acres. The APDES permit for the site has been administratively extended since 2004. In 2011 Trident and EPA entered into a consent decree for Trident’s Alaska facilities including at Sand Point. .Trident is preparing a remediation plan to bring the ZOD into compliance with permit requirements.
SE 5 10204-501 Hawk Inlet NW Admirality Island 0.002 square miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, and Zinc Mine, Ore Transfer Facility   Hawk Inlet, in the area immediately around the Greens Creek Mine Ore Concentrate Loading Area, was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 2012 for non-attainment of toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria (specifically the metals cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc) for marine water uses. In 1989, the first attempt to load a barge with ore concentrate resulted in a spill of this concentrate into Hawk Inlet. Approximately 900 to 1,000 pounds of bulk and zinc concentrate were spilled. One third of the concentrate fell into Hawk Inlet and two thirds fell on land. Clean up occurred at the time of the spill. Post-spill monitoring indicated that the sediment was contaminated due to the spill. In 1994, a suction dredge was used to remove as much of the spilled ore concentrate from the sediment as possible; a total of 550 cubic yards of material was removed. Confirmation samples showed that metal concentrations were at or close to pre-spill conditions. However, the original cannery fire debris complicated cleanup efforts and liter-sized pockets of concentrate were not removed. Marine sediment sample locations in the immediate vicinity of the Ore Concentrate Loading Area exceed NOAA Screening Quick Reference Tables (SQuiRTs) Effect Range Low screening benchmarks for marine sediment for cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The total area of concern is approximately 1.12 acres, as determined by establishing a perimeter around the loading dock and the sampling locations. The mine has an APDES permit (AK0043206) for wastewater and stormwater discharge. Annual monitoring requirements include: aquatic biomonitoring (2002-2016); fresh water monitoring (2002-2016); tailings and production rock, and inactive production rock and quarries (2001-2016); and Hawk Inlet water, sediment and biota (2005-2016). The primary objective of the Hawk Inlet monitoring program is to document the water quality, sediment and biological conditions in receiving waters and marine environments that may be impacted by the mine’s operations. TMDL development for Hawk Inlet began in September 2015. The stakeholder review occurred in March 2016. The TMDL approach involves extensive data analyses to identify potential sources to Hawk Inlet and evaluates spatial or temporal trends. The TMDL is scheduled for completion in 2017.
SE 5 10203-002 Katlian River North of Sitka, Baranof Island 4.5 miles Sediment, Turbidity Sediment, Turbidity Timber Harvest   Katlian River was placed on the Section 303(d) list in 1998 for non-attainment of the sediment and turbidity criteria. Past land use activities have created a number of concerns about water quality and fish habitat. The harvest of riparian timber and location, and lack of maintenance of the road system created the following concerns: decreased channel stability, landslides and small slope failures, increased sediment levels, loss of aquatic habitat, siltation of holding pools for migrating salmon, and alteration of watershed hydrology. Watershed effects resulted in use impairment for aquatic life. In 2016, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) evaluated Katlian watershed conditions and the potential major sediment sources, and determined restoration opportunities; the evaluation report is expected in early 2017.
SE 5 10203-010 Kimshan Cove North of Sitka, Baranof Island 0.028 square miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals - Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Mercury Abandoned Mine   Kimshan Cove was placed on the Section 303(d) list in the 2012 Integrated Report for non-attainment of toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria, specifically for metals. The Kimshan Cove Mine site is located on the east shore of Kimshan Cove, on the North side of Doolth Mountain. A PA/SI was conducted in 1999 and the report was submitted to the Region 10 Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team.. Marine and freshwater sediments were sampled in the PA/SI. The tailings piles associated with the mine are located in the intertidal and subtidal areas and are estimated to contain approximately 140,000 tons of material with an additional 70,000 tons located in the upland area. This site is listed in the DEC Office of Spill Prevention and Response (SPAR) Database of Contaminated Sites. The SPAR program reports that the upland property owner has been contacted about said metals contamination and that further characterization and/or clean-up will be required. Marine sediment concentrations exceed the NOAA SQuiRTs screening benchmarks for arsenic, lead, and mercury by an order of magnitude in numerous locations. An inter-agency scoping meeting in late 2013 discussed the prospect of a spring 2014 site inspection, and potential monitoring and remedial plans; however the site is complicated with no Potential Responsible Party (PRP) and no further studies have conducted to date.
SE 5 10103-504 Salt Chuck Bay Kasaan Area, Prince of Wales Island 0.025 square miles Toxic & Other Deleterious Organic and Inorganic Substances Metals – Copper Mining   Salt Chuck Bay was placed on the Section 303(d) list in the 2010 Integrated Report for non-attainment of the toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances criteria for metals. The Salt Chuck Mine is an abandoned historic gold, silver, copper and palladium mine on the southeast side of Prince of Wales Island. The mine and mill operated from 1905 to 1941, processing more than 326,000 tons of ore. An extensive tailings deposit of an estimated 100,000 cubic yards is located mostly in the intertidal zone south of the mill, on state-owned tidelands. Additional tailings are located in the upland area, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The tailings deposits on the whole site, including the intertidal zone and the upland area, cover 23 acres. The DNR’s Prince of Wales Area Plan identifies the area around the site as "intensive public recreation use." The USFS has public-use cabins and a campground in the area, and Salt Chuck Bay is used for subsistence clamming and crabbing, and adjacent Lake Ellen Creek supports five species of anadromous fish.
The Salt Chuck Mine was listed by the EPA on the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket and published in the Federal Register on June 27, 1997, because studies indicated the presence of physical and chemical hazards to the public and environment. In 2002, an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) was conducted; additional site investigations were complete in 2006. Copper concentrations found in the intertidal water column exceeded State of Alaska water quality criteria. In addition, sediment/tailings found in the intertidal zone exceed the NOAA SQuiRTs screening benchmarks for sediment quality. In March 2010, the site was added to the EPA NPL. In 2012, the USFS conducted a non-time critical removal action on the uplands; this was the selected alternative in the 2010 EE/CA. The USFS built a short road to provide access to the site, removed building debris, drums and tanks, and excavated roughly 5,400 cubic yards of petroleum-contaminated soil and metals-contaminated tailings. Although the USFS’s removal action was substantial, additional contamination remains in the uplands on USFS-managed lands. In 2013, the inter-tidal area risk assessment workplan, and a treatability study were finalized, and the remaining Remedial Investigation (RI) field work was complete. In September 2014, review of the uplands RI and risk assessment reports were conducted; comments have not been resolved. Preparation of the treatability study is planned for 2016.

Approved TMDLs

Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) are required actions for polluted waters found on the Alaska 's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters. DEC lists these waters in Category 5 of the Alaska Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report, which encompasses the 303(d) list. The waterbodies shown here have an approved TMDL in place.
A TMDL, or other approved management mechanism, are required for a polluted waterbody to be removed from the 303(d) list. A waterbody can also be removed if there are assurances that pollution controls are in place, or will be in place that result in attainment of water quality standards. These 'assurances' include other pollution recovery plans such as a waterbody recovery plan, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), Record of Decision (ROD) or a similar type of hazardous substance clean-up approved by DEC's Contaminated Sites Program. These waters are shown in Category 4b of the Integrated Report. There are also instances where there is no true plan but general assurances that controls are being implemented and only require some follow-up implementation or effectiveness monitoring (as opposed to in-stream monitoring). These files are available for viewing and printing in PDF format.

TMDL's for Construction General Permits

Approved TMDLs
Waterbody Region TMDL (PDF) Year Author Impairment
Waterbody Region TMDL (PDF) Year Author Impairment
Akutan Harbor Southwest TMDL (PDF, 3.35 MB) 1995 EPA Dissolved Oxygen
Akutan Harbor Southwest TMDL (PDF, 2.22 MB) 1995 EPA Residues
Big Lake Southcentral TMDL (PDF, 1.8 MB) 2012 DEC Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oil and Grease
Boulder and Deadwood Creeks (Crooked Creek watershed) Interior TMDL (PDF, 5.9 MB) 2018 DEC Turbidity
Upper Birch Creek Interior TMDL (PDF, 1.2 MB) 1996 EPA Turbidity and Sediment
Campbell Creek/Lake Southcentral TMDL (PDF, 3 MB) 2006 DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Chester Creek, University Lake, Westchester Lagoon Southcentral TMDL (PDF, 2.4 MB) 2005 DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Cottonwood Creek, Wasilla Southcentral TMDL (PDF, 4.1 MB) 2015 DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Crooked Creek Watershed (Crooked, Boulder, Deadwood, and Ketchem Creeks) Interior TMDL (PDF, 3.55 MB) 2019 EPA Turbidity
Crooked Creek Watershed – Boulder and Deadwood Creeks Interior TMDL (PDF, 5.9 MB) 2018 DEC Turbidity
Duck Creek Southeast TMDL   EPA Debris
Duck Creek Southeast TMDL   EPA Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Duck Creek Southeast TMDL   EPA Turbidity
Duck Creek Southeast TMDL   EPA Dissolved Oxygen and Iron
Dutch Harbor Southwest TMDL 2010 DEC Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Eagle River Southcentral TMDL   AWWU Ammonia,Copper, Lead, Silver, Chlorine
Fish Creek, Anchorage Southcentral TMDL   DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Furrow Creek Southcentral TMDL 2004 DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Garrison Slough Interior TMDL (PDF, 612 KB) 1996 EPA Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls
Goldstream Creek Interior TMDL 2015 DEC Turbidity
Granite Creek Southeast TMDL   DEC Turbidity
Hawk Inlet Southeast TMDL   DEC Metals in Marine Sediments
Herring Cove Southeast TMDL   DEC Residues
Iliuliuk Harbor Southwest TMDL   DEC Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Jewel Lake Southcentral TMDL   EPA Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Jordan Creek Southeast TMDL   DEC Residues
Jordan Creek Southeast TMDL   DEC DO/Sediment
King Cove Southwest TMDL   DEC Residues
Klag Bay Southeast TMDL   DEC Toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances
Lake Lucille Southcentral TMDL   DEC Dissolved Oxygen
Lemon Creek Southeast TMDL   DEC Sediment and Turbidity
Little Campbell Creek Southcentral TMDL   DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Little Rabbit Creek Southcentral TMDL   DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Little Survival Creek Southcentral TMDL   DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Matanuska River Southcentral TMDL (PDF, 3.3 MB) 2017 DEC Residues(debris)
Noyes Slough Interior TMDL (PDF, 1.4 MB) 2008 DEC Residues
Noyes Slough Interior TMDL 2011 DEC Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Oil and Grease
Pederson Hill Creek Southeast TMDL   DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Pullen Creek Southeast TMDL 2010 DEC Toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances
Red Lake Anton Road Pond, or Red Lake/Anton Road Pond Southcentral TMDL   DEC Toxic and other deleterious organic and inorganic substances
Ship Creek Southcentral TMDL   DEC Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Silver Bay Southeast TMDL   DEC Residue and Toxic Substances
Skagway Harbor (West & Central) Southeast TMDL   DEC Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Slate Creek Interior TMDL 2014 DEC Antimony, Arsenic and Iron
South Unalaska Bay Southwest TMDL   EPA Biochemical Oxygen Demand
South Unalaska Bay Southwest TMDL   EPA Settleable Solid Residues
Swan Lake Southeast TMDL   DEC Debris and Solid Waste
Thorne Bay Southeast TMDL   DEC Wood Residues
Udagak Bay of Beaver Inlet Southwest TMDL   DEC Residues
Vanderbilt Creek Southeast TMDL   DEC Sediment and Turbidity
Ward Cove Southeast TMDL   DEC Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ward Cove Southeast TMDL   DEC Residue and Dissolved Oxygen

Scheduled TMDLs

Proposed Alaska TMDL completion date schedule (reflects 2016 Draft Integrated Report)

Note: During TMDL development, it may be determined that a TMDL is not needed if the waterbody has recovered or adequate restoration actions are ongoing.

Alaska’s approved and final TMDL s can be found on the Approved TMDL s tab.

Scheduled TMDLs
Waterbody Region Schedule
Crooked Creek Watershed (partial) Interior/North Slope 2018
Crooked Creek Watershed (partial) Interior/North Slope 2019
Stampede Creek Interior/North Slope 2020
Popof Strait Southcentral 2020
Lake Lucille Southcentral 2021
Salt Chuck Bay Southeast 2022
Little Susitna River Southcentral 2022
Kimshan Cove Southeast 2023
Kenai River Southcentral 2023
Egegik River Southcentral 2024
Kuskokwin River (Red Devil) Interior/North Slope 2024
Katlian River Southeast 2025
Cold Bay Southcentral 2026
Red Devil Creek Interior/North Slope 2025
Waterbody Region Schedule

Regional Contacts

Regional Contacts
Region Contact Phone Email
Interior/Northern/North Slope Chandra McGee (907) 451-2140 chandra.mcgee@alaska.gov
Southeast Gretchen Pikul (907)465-5023 gretchen.pikul@alaska.gov
Southcentral/Kenai Amber Bethe (907) 269-7955 Amber.Bethe@alaska.gov
Southcentral/Mat-Su/Southwest Laura Eldred (907)376-1855 laura.eldred@alaska.gov

FAQs about Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

Click question to show answer.

Just what is a TMDL?
A TMDL identifies the amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can assimilate and maintain compliance with water quality standards. TMDLs include an appropriate margin of safety and identify the level of management needed to reduce pollutant inputs to a level (or “load”) that allows a waterbody to meet its designated uses.
A TMDL is composed of individual wasteload allocations (WLAs) for point sources and load allocations (LAs) for nonpoint sources and background loads. In addition, the TMDL must include a margin of safety (MOS), either implicitly or explicitly, that accounts for the uncertainty in the relationship between pollutant loads and the quality of the receiving waterbody.
What are water quality standards and designated uses?
Water Quality Standards are either numeric or narrative standards used to define the goals for a waterbody by designating its uses, setting criteria to protect those uses, and establishing provisions to protect waterbodies from pollutants. Designated uses specify appropriate water uses to be achieved and protected. Appropriate uses are identified by taking into consideration the use and value of the water body for public water supply, for protection of fish, shellfish, and wildlife, and for recreational, agricultural, industrial, and navigational purposes. In designating uses for a water body, States and Tribes examine the suitability of a water body for the uses based on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the water body, its geographical setting and scenic qualities, and economic considerations.
How are TMDLs implemented?
The mechanisms used to address water quality problems after the TMDL is developed can include a combination of best management practices (BMPs) for nonpoint sources and/or effluent limits and monitoring required through Alaska Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (APDES) permits. Municipalities and other stakeholders have the opportunity to apply for grants to assist in funding projects to help reduce water pollution. Using a TMDL approach for water bodies does not replace existing water quality control programs or standard treatment technologies. It provides a framework for evaluating all possible water quality control efforts and promotes closer coordination of local, state, and federal efforts to better guarantee that we collectively meet water quality goals.
How does a TMDL affect my property?
A TMDL is not designed to act as a permitting tool but rather as a tool for assessing the various sources of pollution associated with a waterbody that cause the waterbody not to meet Alaska Water Quality Standards. Municipal and State zoning and ordinances apply as they would in any other permitting situation. However, permitting requirements and enforcement may be much stricter for properties adjacent to a TMDL waterbody depending on the type, duration, and extent of development to take place. Point source permits must be consistent with approved TMDLs.
How is the local community involved in restoring water quality?
The DEC supports the use of a watershed approach to address nonpoint source pollution. A watershed approach is based on the premise that water quality restoration and protection are best addressed through integrated efforts within a defined geographic area. Municipalities, non-governmental organizations, and other interested partners, have the ability to develop waterbody restoration plans and apply for funding to implement such programs. On an annual basis DEC looks for partners to address restoration plans through the Alaska Clean Water Actions (ACWA) program.
What happens if the TMDL plan doesn’t restore water quality?
If monitoring indicates that water quality standards are not being achieved after a plan is approved, DEC has the ability to conduct a formal evaluation to determine if:
  1. The implementation of new and improved management practices are necessary;
  2. Water quality is improving but more time is needed to comply with water quality standards; or
  3. Revisions to the plan are necessary to meet water quality standards.
DEC recognizes that some water quality problems will not be resolved quickly or inexpensively.
How can the public comment on the TMDL?
Alaska has a 30-day public comment period in which anyone is welcome to comment on the TMDL. During this period, news releases are sent out and the copies of the TMDL and public notice are posted on the DEC’s TMDL website. DEC will respond to comments in a “Response to Comments” document prior to submitting the TMDL to EPA for approval.
Region Contact Phone Email
Monitoring and Assesment Section Manager Terri Lomax 907-269-7635 Terri.Lomax@alaska.gov
NPS/TMDLs Chandra McGee (907) 269-3066 Chandra.McGee@alaska.gov
Alaska's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters Drew Grant (907) 465-5304 Drew.Grant@alaska.gov
Regional Contacts
Region Contact Phone Email
Interior/Northern Chandra McGee (907) 451-2140 chandra.mcgee@alaska.gov
Southeast Gretchen Pikul (907) 465-5023 gretchen.pikul@alaska.gov
Southcentral Amber Bethe (907) 269-7955 Amber.Bethe@alaska.gov
Mat-Su/Southcentral Laura Eldred (907) 376-1855 laura.eldred@alaska.gov
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